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The roots of cybernetic theory
Ştefan Odobleja (1902–1978) was a Romanian scientist, one of the precursors of cybernetics. His major work, Psychologie consonantiste, first published in 1938 and 1939, in Paris, had established many of the major themes of cybernetics regarding cybernetics and systems thinking ten years before the work of Norbert Wiener was published in 1948. The word cybernetics was first used in the context of "the study of self-governance" by Plato in The Laws to signify the governance of people. The word 'cybernétique' was also used in 1834 by the physicist André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836) to denote the sciences of government in his classification system of human knowledge.
The first artificial automatic regulatory system, a water clock, was invented by the mechanician Ktesibios. In his water clocks, water flowed from a source such as a holding tank into a reservoir, then from the reservoir to the mechanisms of the clock. Ktesibios's device used a cone-shaped float to monitor the level of the water in its reservoir and adjust the rate of flow of the water accordingly to maintain a constant level of water in the reservoir, so that it neither overflowed nor was allowed to run dry. This was the first artificial truly automatic self-regulatory device that required no outside intervention between the feedback and the controls of the mechanism. Although they did not refer to this concept by the name of Cybernetics (they considered it a field of engineering), Ktesibios and others such as Heron and Su Song are considered to be some of the first to study cybernetic principles.
The study of teleological mechanisms (from the Greek τέλος or telos for end, goal, or purpose) in machines with corrective feedback dates from as far back as the late 1700s when James Watt's steam engine was equipped with a governor, a centrifugal feedback valve for controlling the speed of the engine. Alfred Russel Wallace identified this as the principle of evolution in his famous 1858 paper. In 1868 James Clerk Maxwell published a theoretical article on governors, one of the first to discuss and refine the principles of self-regulating devices. Jakob von Uexküll applied the feedback mechanism via his model of functional cycle (Funktionskreis) in order to explain animal behaviour and the origins of meaning in general.
The early 20th century
From Latin psychē < Ancient Greek ψυχή (psyche, “soul, breath”)
psyche (plural psyches)
The human soul, mind, or spirit.
(chiefly psychology) The human mind as the central force in thought, emotion, and behavior of an individual.
engineer (plural engineers)
- A person who is qualified or professionally engaged in any branch of engineering.
- A person trained in a natural science that applies such knowledge towards a practical objective.
- A person who, given a practical scientific problem involving the physical world and a specific set of goals and constraints, finds a technical solution to the problem that satisfies those goals within those constraints. The goals and constraints may be technical, social, or business related.
- A person who operates an engine (such as a locomotive)
No generally-accepted definition of “design” exists, and the term has different connotations in different fields (see design disciplines below). Informally, “a design” (noun) refers to a plan for the construction of an object (as in architectural blueprints, circuit diagrams and sewing patterns) and “to design” (verb) refers to making this plan. However, one can also design by directly constructing an object (as in pottery, cowboy coding and graphic design).
More formally, design has been defined as follows.
- (noun) a specification of an object, manifested by an agent, intended to accomplish goals, in a particular environment, using a set of primitive components, satisfying a set of requirements, subject to constraints;
- (verb, transitive) to create a design, in an environment (where the designer operates
Here, a "specification" can be manifested as either a plan or a finished product and "primitives" are the elements from which the design object is composed.
With such a broad denotation, there is no universal language or unifying institution for designers of all disciplines. This allows for many differing philosophies and approaches toward the subject (see Philosophies and studies of design, below).
The person designing is called a designer, which is also a term used for people who work professionally in one of the various design areas, usually also specifying which area is being dealt with (such as a fashion designer, concept designer or web designer). A designer’s sequence of activities is called a design process. The scientific study of design is called design science.
Designing often necessitates considering the aesthetic, functional, economic and sociopolitical dimensions of both the design object and design process. It may involve considerable research, thought, modeling, interactive adjustment, and re-design. Meanwhile, diverse kinds of objects may be designed, including clothing, graphical user interfaces, skyscrapers, corporate identities, business processes and even methods of designing.
System (from Latin systēma, in turn from Greek σύστημα systēma, "whole compounded of several parts or members, system", literary "composition") is a set of interacting or interdependent entities forming an integrated whole.
The concept of an 'integrated whole' can also be stated in terms of a system embodying a set of relationships which are differentiated from relationships of the set to other elements, and from relationships between an element of the set and elements not a part of the relational regime.
The scientific research field which is engaged in the study of the general properties of systems include systems theory, cybernetics, dynamical systems, thermodynamics and complex systems. They investigate the abstract properties of the matter and organization, searching concepts and principles which are independent of the specific domain, substance, type, or temporal scales of existence.
Most systems share common characteristics, including:
- Systems have structure, defined by parts and their composition;
- Systems have behavior, which involves inputs, processing and outputs of material, energy, information, or data;
- Systems have interconnectivity: the various parts of a system have functional as well as structural relationships between each other.
- Systems have by themselves functions or groups of functions
The term system may also refer to a set of rules that governs behavior or structure
- A building in an airport where passengers transfer from ground transportation to the facilities that allow them to board airplanes.
- A rail station where service begins and ends; the end of the line. For example: Grand Central Terminal in New York City.
- In electronics, the end of a line where signals are either transmitted or received, or a point along the length of a line where the signals are made available to apparatus.
- An electric contact on a battery.
- In telecommunications, the apparatus to send and/or receive signals on a line, such as a telephone or network device.
- (computing) In the context of computer hardware, a device for entering data into a computer or a communications system and/or displaying data received, especially a device equipped with a keyboard and some sort of textual display.
- (computing) A computer program that emulates a terminal .
- (computing theory) A terminal symbol in a formal grammar
input (plural inputs)
Something fed into a process with the intention of it shaping or affecting the outputs of that process.
to input (third-person singular simple present inputs, present participle inputting, simple past and past participle input or inputted)
- (transitive) To enter data.
- The user inputs his date of birth and the computer displays his age.
- (transitive) To accept data that is entered.
output (countable and uncountable; plural outputs)
- (economics) production; quantity produced, created, or completed.
- The factory increased its output this year.
- (computing) data sent out of the computer, as to output device such as a monitor or printer.
a six page output
- Critical assessment on information produced
- After you hand in your essays, I will give both grades and feedback.
- (cybernetics, systems) The signal that is looped back to control a system within itself.
- The high-pitched howling noise heard when there's a loop between a microphone and a speaker
cycle (plural cycles)
- An interval of space or time in which one set of events or phenomena is completed.
- A complete rotation of anything.
- A process that returns to its beginning and then repeats itself in the same sequence.
- A series of poems, songs or other works of art
- A programme on a washing machine, dishwasher, or other such device.
- Put the washing in on a warm cycle.
- A pedal-powered vehicle, such as a unicycle, bicycle, or tricycle; or, motorized vehicle that has either two or three wheels, such as a motorbike, motorcycle, motorized tricycle, or motortrike.
- (baseball) A single, a double, a triple, and a home run hit by the same player in the same game.
- Jones hit for the cycle in the game.
- (graph theory) A closed walk or path, with or without repeated vertices allowed.
diagnostic (comparative more diagnostic, superlative most diagnostic)
- of, or relating to diagnosis
- characteristic of a particular disease
diagnostic (plural diagnostics)
- a technique etc. used in medical diagnosis
- (computing) Any tool or technique used to find the root of a problemLogical Scenario
Concorde Career College has invited Professor Geek to lecture to an audience of system diagnostic technicians.
Welcome everyone: My lecture today is aimed to illustrate the proper technique to troubleshoot any system to discover why it has failed to produce the desired output designed by the engineer.
Engineer is a person that has technical knowledge to solve a problem by designing a system to achieve a specific goal as the desired output.
Whenever the system has failed to achieve its specific goal whereby an undesired output has occurred, then the job of the system diagnostic technician is to review the diagram (i.e. flowchart, blueprint, layout etc.) produced by the engineer to determine down the exact specifications of each input component.
Next, trace the system to discover an inconsistency with the diagram and either fix or replace the component that doesn't match up with the original design.
Moral of my story is: The engineer is the expert authority who has designed his or her system. Systems Diagnostics Technician is a person that has been trained to troubleshoot a system by examining the diagram produced by the engineer and diagnosing the problem.Rule 36 Requests for Admission
Please check [X] ADMIT or DENY to my following requests for admission:
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY God has engineered our human spirit
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Our human spirit governs our behavior
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Holy Bible is God's blueprint of our design
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Holy Bible is for correction
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Holy Bible is for reproof
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Holy Bible is for instructions
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY God has designed man to fulfill his desires
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY God desires to establish his kingdom on earth
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Man has failed to fulfill God's desire
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Solution is to examine the blueprint
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Man has strayed away from God's will
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Man has become self sufficient
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Man no longer has need for God
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Man has become self destructive
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY God's word is the only cure
Holy Bible has documented that God has breathe a breath of life into man and he has become a living soul.
Etymology origin of the word psyche stems from the Latin word for soul or breath.
Psychology is a field of study originated by theologians to study our mind, soul or spirit.
Psychiatrists or Psychologists have attempted to diagnose man without referring to our Holy Bible to review God's specifications or warnings.
God's foremost instruction to all mankind has been to seek ye first the kingdom of God and all else shall be added.
Last edited by stanleyg5; 08-29-2010 at 11:53 PM. Reason: typo
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