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Data-transmission code used to represent both text (letters, numbers, punctuation marks) and noninput device commands (control characters) for electronic exchange and storage. Standard ASCII uses a string of 7 bits (binary digits) for each symbol and can thus represent 27 = 128 characters. Extended ASCII uses an 8-bit encoding system and can thus represent 28 = 256 characters. While ASCII is still found in legacy data, Unicode, with 8-, 16-, and 32-bit versions, has become standard for modern operating systems and browsers. In particular, the 32-bit version now supports all of the characters in every major language.
Former U.S. telegraph company and contemporary provider of electronic financial transactions. From its foundation in 1851 as a company formed to build a telegraph line from Buffalo, N.Y., to St. Louis, Mo., in 1856 the expanding business was reorganized as the Western Union Telegraph Co. By the end of 1861 Western Union had built the first transcontinental telegraph line. The company introduced singing telegrams in 1933. Western Union continued to grow, absorbing competitors such as Postal Telegraph Inc. in 1943. As telegraphy was superseded by other methods of telecommunication, Western Union diversified into teletypewriter services, money orders, and mailgrams. It launched the telecommunications satellite Westar 1 in 1974 and was operating five satellites by 1982. In 1988 the company was reorganized as Western Union Corp. to handle money transfers and related services. After declaring bankruptcy in 1993, it sold its financial services arm in 1994 to First Financial Management Corp., and in 1995 that company merged with First Data Corp. The renamed Western Union Financial Services, Inc., became a world leader in electronic (including Internet) transactions.
The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) was developed under the auspices of a committee of the American Standards Association, called the X3 committee, by its X3.2 (later X3L2) subcommittee, and later by that subcommittee's X3.2.4 working group. The ASA became the United States of America Standards Institute or USASI and ultimately the American National Standards Institute.
The X3.2 subcommittee designed ASCII based on earlier teleprinter encoding systems. Like other character encodings, ASCII specifies a correspondence between digital bit patterns and character symbols (i.e. graphemes and control characters). This allows digital devices to communicate with each other and to process, store, and communicate character-oriented information such as written language. Before ASCII was developed, the encodings in use included 26 alphabetic characters, 10 numerical digits, and from 11 to 25 special graphic symbols. To include all these, and control characters compatible with the Comité Consultatif International Téléphonique et Télégraphique standard, Fieldata, and early EBCDIC, more than 64 codes were required for ASCII.
A system for sending and receiving messages electronically over a computer network, as between personal computers.
A message or messages sent or received by such a system.
tr.v., -mailed, or -mailed, also -mailed, -mail·ing, or -mail·ing, -mail·ing, -mails, or -mails, -mails.
To send (a message) by such a system.
The transmission by wire of facsimiles of text messages or images originated in 1843 when an English inventor, Alexander Bain (1818–1903), announced a device that could reproduce writing at a distance. There were numerous subsequent variations on the theme of telewriting, but a key invention was Edouard Belin's "Belinograph" of 1925. This device scanned an image using a photocell to detect light reflected off the image. In 1934, the Associated Press news agency introduced the first regular commercial facsimile service, which it used for many years, primarily to transmit photographs.
Although the Radio Corporation of America, various newspapers, the wire services, and others attempted to expand the use of facsimile services, there was little public demand until the late twentieth century. In the 1980s, however, facsimile machine usage exploded. The reasons are not entirely clear. The concerted effort by Japanese electronics companies to develop smaller, less expensive facsimile machines certainly offered the potential of more widespread ownership of the devices. These firms also promoted the establishment of communication standards, which made it possible for machines made by different manufacturers to receive messages from one another. Coupled with this were changes in American business practices, such as the growing number of home offices and the breakup of AT&T, which removed restrictions on the use of the telephone network. Nearly ubiquitous in offices by 1990, the fax machine then became a household appliance, with consumers spending nearly $900 million that year to buy them
Communication between parties at a distance from one another. Modern telecommunication systems — capable of transmitting telephone, fax, data, radio, or television signals — can transmit large volumes of information over long distances. Digital transmission is employed in order to achieve high reliability with minimal noise, or interference, and because it can transmit any signal type, digital or analog. For digital transmission, analog signals must be subjected to a process of analog-to-digital conversion; most television, radio, and voice communications are analog and must be digitized before transmission. Transmission may occur over cables, wireless radio relay systems, or via satellite links.
Publicly accessible computer network connecting many smaller networks from around the world. It grew out of a U.S. Defense Department program called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), established in 1969 with connections between computers at the University of California at Los Angeles, Stanford Research Institute, the University of California-Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah. ARPANET's purpose was to conduct research into computer networking in order to provide a secure and survivable communications system in case of war. As the network quickly expanded, academics and researchers in other fields began to use it as well. In 1971 the first program for sending e-mail over a distributed network was developed; by 1973, the year international connections to ARPANET were made (from Britain and Norway), e-mail represented most of the traffic on ARPANET. The 1970s also saw the development of mailing lists, newsgroups and bulletin-board systems, and the TCP/IP communications protocols, which were adopted as standard protocols for ARPANET in 1982 – 83, leading to the widespread use of the term Internet. In 1984 the domain name addressing system was introduced. In 1986 the National Science Foundation established the NSFNET, a distributed network of networks capable of handling far greater traffic, and within a year more than 10,000 hosts were connected to the Internet. In 1988 real-time conversation over the network became possible with the development of Internet Relay Chat protocols (see chat). In 1990 ARPANET ceased to exist, leaving behind the NSFNET, and the first commercial dial-up access to the Internet became available. In 1991 the World Wide Web was released to the public (via FTP). The Mosaic browser was released in 1993, and its popularity led to the proliferation of World Wide Web sites and users. In 1995 the NSFNET reverted to the role of a research network, leaving Internet traffic to be routed through network providers rather than NSF supercomputers. That year the Web became the most popular part of the Internet, surpassing the FTP protocols in traffic volume. By 1997 there were more than 10 million hosts on the Internet and more than 1 million registered domain names. Internet access can now be gained via radio signals, cable-television lines, satellites, and fibre-optic connections, though most traffic still uses a part of the public telecommunications (telephone) network. The Internet is widely regarded as a development of vast significance that will affect nearly every aspect of human culture and commerce in ways still only dimly discernible.
Programmable machine that can store, retrieve, and process data. Today's computers have at least one CPU that performs most calculations and includes a main memory, a control unit, and an arithmetic logic unit. Increasingly, personal computers contain specialized graphic processors, with dedicated memory, for handling the computations needed to display complex graphics, such as for three-dimensional simulations and games. Auxiliary data storage is usually provided by an internal hard disk and may be supplemented by other media such as floppy disks or CD-ROMs. Peripheral equipment includes input devices (e.g., keyboard, mouse) and output devices (e.g., monitor, printer), as well as the circuitry and cabling that connect all the components. Generations of computers are characterized by their technology. First-generation digital computers, developed mostly in the U.S. after World War II, used vacuum tubes and were enormous. The second generation, introduced c. 1960, used transistors and were the first successful commercial computers. Third-generation computers (late 1960s and 1970s) were characterized by miniaturization of components and use of integrated circuits. The microprocessor chip, introduced in 1974, defines fourth-generation computers.Logical Scenario
Professor Geek is instructing a beginner computer machine language class.
Years ago Samuel Morse had standardized Morse Code as a machine language for telegraph operators to wire telegrams that has served as telecommunication.
ASCII is our modern-day standardized version of Morse Code. It has been made user friendly to eliminate the need for telegraph operators to wire our messages.
Rather, we can now sit down at our personal computer type in an electronic message and send it to a second, third or infinite array of computers.
Computer engineers have dubbed the later as electronic mail (e-mail).
Moral of my story is: Telegraph telecommunication was cumbersome and costly to wire telegrams through Western Union. Computers have been made user friendly whereby a person can email messages or money to second, third or infinite array of computers cost efficiently.Rule 36 Requests for Admission
Please [X] check ADMIT or DENY to my following requests for admission:
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Western Union is costly to wire messages
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Email is free to send messages
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Fax is cost efficient telecommunication
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Telecommunication is cheaper today than yesterday
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Businesses have saved money utilizing the internet
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Consumers have saved money utilizing the internet
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Federal government has gone bankrupted
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY State government has gone bankrupted
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY County government has gone bankrupted
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Municipal government has gone bankrupted
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Government personnel are skimming off the top
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Public hasn't held government accountable
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Public hasn't exercise oversight over government
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Government spending is out of control
- [ ] ADMIT [ ] DENY Government is headed for a catastrophe
Telecommunication via Western Union has been a costly resource to wire messages or money.
Internet technology has made computers user friendly for companies or individuals to send messages or money cost efficiently.
Ironically, Federal, State, County and Municipal governments have gone bankrupted in modern-day.
General public has neglected to exercise oversight to hold government accountable for skimming off the top.
Taxpayers should stop playing with computers as a toy and get busy talking about how to fix our government from wasting our tax dollars.
Government must make a choice of what to spend our tax dollars for. Pick one of the four choices below and discard the others:
- Better the livelihood of American citizens
- Worsen the livelihood of American citizens
- Better the livelihood of foreign nations
- Worsen the livelihood of foreign nations
Once our government has eliminated the cost that we can ill afford to burden, then God will bless us with abundance for things we are able to afford.
Last edited by stanleyg5; 08-17-2010 at 06:28 AM. Reason: modification
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